How-To: NIS2 EU Directive

The NIS2 Directive is a European Union legislative text on cybersecurity that supersedes the first NIS (Network and Information Security) Directive, adopted in July 2016.

NIS vs. NIS2

While the first NIS (Network and Information Security) Directive increased the Member States’ cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has submitted a proposal to replace the NIS Directive and thereby strengthen the security requirements, address the security of supply chains, streamline reporting obligations, and introduce more stringent supervisory measures and stricter enforcement requirements, including harmonised sanctions across the EU.

NIS2 strengthens security requirements in the EU by expanding the NIS scope to more sectors and entities, taking into account

  • the security of supply chains,
  • streamlining reporting obligations,
  • introducing monitoring measures,
  • introducing more stringent enforcement requirements,
  • adding the concept of “management bodies” accountability within companies, and
  • harmonizing and tightening sanctions in all Member States.

To achieve the above mentioned goals, NIS2 requires member states to take a number of measures that forces them to work together:

  • Establish or improve information sharing between member states and a common incident response plan that coordinates with other member state plans
  • Establish a national Computer Emergency Response Team
  • Strengthen cooperation between public and private sector entities


In a nutshell, companies can stay compliant with the NIS2 Directive by

  • establishing an effective monitoring system that can detect intrusions, detect suspicious activities, and alert the authorities when necessary
  • developing comprehensive plans that detail how they will respond to an attack and what steps they will take to recover from it.


The official website of the EU for the NIS2 Directive has prepared an FAQ with many good questions and answers.

However, what the website is not saying (for good reasons) is how should companies start to prepare for implementing the directive.


How to start the compliance path

In order to successfully start implementing the requirements, the following steps should be implemented in this order. We will publish articles about pretty much each of these topics.


1.Conduct a gap analysis

Assess your company’s current cybersecurity practices, policies, and infrastructure against the requirements of the NIS2 directive.

Identify any gaps or areas that need improvement to comply with the directive.

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2.Designate a responsible person or team

Appoint an individual or a team responsible for overseeing the implementation of the NIS2 directive within your company. This could be a dedicated cybersecurity team or an existing department with relevant expertise.

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3.Establish a cybersecurity framework

Develop or update your company’s cybersecurity framework to align with the NIS2 directive. This framework should include policies, procedures, and technical controls to protect your network and information systems effectively.

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4.Perform a risk assessment

Conduct a comprehensive risk assessment of your company’s network and information systems. Identify potential threats, vulnerabilities, and risks that may impact the availability, integrity, and confidentiality of critical systems and data. This assessment will help you prioritize security measures and allocate appropriate resources. Risk management and assessments are an ongoing process. Once one risk assessment is carried out, it is important to schedule regular updates to ensure all steps are maintained.

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5.Implement security measures

Based on the risk assessment findings, implement appropriate security measures to mitigate identified risks. This may include network segmentation, access controls, intrusion detection systems, incident response procedures, encryption, employee training, and regular security updates, among others.

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6.Establish incident response capabilities

Develop an incident response plan and establish procedures for detecting, responding to, and recovering from cybersecurity incidents. Ensure the assigned employees are trained on how to recognize and report security breaches promptly. Business continuity is a very complex topic, which must be planned with a lot of time in advance and it requires extra resources (both human and financial).

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7.Continuously Monitor and review

Implement mechanisms to continuously monitor and assess your network and information systems for potential threats. Regularly review and update your cybersecurity measures to adapt to emerging risks and changes in the threat landscape.

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8. Maintain documentation and records

Keep comprehensive documentation of your cybersecurity measures, risk assessments, incident response activities, and any other relevant information. This documentation will serve as evidence of compliance and may be required for regulatory audits or investigations. A good record might save your company legal and regulatory repercussions in case of a major incident (cyber related or not).

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9.Engage with regulatory authorities

Stay informed about any reporting or notification obligations outlined in the NIS2 directive. Establish communication channels with the relevant regulatory authorities and comply with any reporting requirements or inquiries they may have. NIS2 strives to improve EU-wide communication and sharing of cyber events in order to better prepare answers and reactions. Communication has never been more important than now.

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10. Define KPIs for cybersecurity and measures taken based on them

In order to measure the effectiveness of the cybersecurity, you need to define metrics that allow identifying and quantifying changes. Example of metrics are number of incidents, types of incidents,  how many trainings have been made, how many people were trained, how many pentests were made and how many issues were identified, and many more.

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The post How-To: NIS2 EU Directive first appeared on Sorin Mustaca on Cybersecurity.

Preventing Attacks and Securing the Supply Chain in the Security Software Industry

The security software industry plays a vital role in safeguarding sensitive data and protecting digital infrastructure.

However, the industry itself faces a significant threat from supply chain attacks.

Supply chain attacks occur when cybercriminals target vulnerabilities within the supply chain to compromise software or hardware products before they reach the end-users.

By infiltrating the supply chain, attackers can inject malicious code, backdoors, or vulnerabilities, thereby compromising the security of the software.

Such attacks can have far-reaching consequences, as they can compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of critical systems and data.

These attacks have the potential to undermine the integrity and trustworthiness of security software, leading to severe consequences for individuals, organizations, and even nations.

This article examines the damaging impact of supply chain attacks on the security software industry, while also delving into preventive measures and strategies to secure the supply chain.



  1. Loss of Trust: Supply chain attacks erode trust in security software products and the industry as a whole. When high-profile incidents occur, customers may lose confidence in the ability of software vendors to protect their assets and data.
  2. Financial Loss: The costs associated with supply chain attacks are staggering. Companies suffer significant financial losses due to reputational damage, legal consequences, customer compensation, and the costs of investigating and mitigating the attack.
  3. Weakened Defenses: A compromised security software product can result in weakened defenses for individuals, organizations, and governments, leaving them vulnerable to further cyberattacks. This situation can have severe consequences, particularly when critical infrastructure or national security is at stake.


Preventing Attacks:

  1. Enhanced Vendor Due Diligence: Organizations should thoroughly vet and assess the security practices of their software vendors and suppliers. This includes scrutinizing their security measures, incident response plans, and third-party audits.
  2. Secure Development Practices: Implementing secure software development practices, such as code review, vulnerability testing, and penetration testing, can help identify and rectify potential weaknesses in software products.
  3. Strong Authentication and Encryption: Implementing robust authentication mechanisms and encryption protocols helps protect the integrity and confidentiality of software and its supply chain components.
  4. Regular Updates and Patching: Ensuring timely and regular updates and patches are applied to software products and their supply chain components helps address known vulnerabilities and protect against emerging threats.



  1. End-to-End Visibility: Organizations must have comprehensive visibility into their supply chain, including the identification of all suppliers and the ability to monitor their security practices throughout the software development lifecycle.
  2. Supply Chain Risk Assessment: Conducting a thorough risk assessment helps identify potential vulnerabilities and risks within the supply chain. This assessment should encompass all stages, from design to distribution, and involve evaluating suppliers, their security practices, and their access controls.
  3. Supplier Contracts and Agreements: Organizations should establish clear contractual agreements with suppliers that define security requirements, incident response protocols, and breach notification obligations. Regular audits and assessments can help ensure compliance.
  4. Incident Response Planning: Developing and regularly testing an incident response plan specific to supply chain attacks enables organizations to respond swiftly and effectively, mitigating the impact of any potential breach.


Supply chain attacks pose a significant threat to the security software industry, compromising the integrity and trustworthiness of software products. The damaging consequences include loss of trust, financial losses, and weakened defenses. However, by implementing preventive measures, such as enhanced vendor due diligence, secure development practices, and regular updates, organizations can bolster their defenses against supply chain attacks. Additionally, securing the supply chain through end-to-end visibility, risk assessments, supplier contracts, and incident response planning.


If you want to know how to address Supply Chain issues, you can contact Endpoint Cybersecurity for a free consultation.

Supply Chain Management



The post Preventing Attacks and Securing the Supply Chain in the Security Software Industry first appeared on Sorin Mustaca on Cybersecurity.